E-Courses - Geology

Physical Geology

Physical Geology

The Earth's Interior

The EarthThe first part of the module addresses how seismic waves can be used to study the interior of the Earth. Then various part of the Earth are described: the crust, the mantle and the core. Some processes occuring in the interior of the Earth influence our lives significantly. The transport of heat from the Earth's core to the surface is the driving force for most geological processes, such as volcanism and earthquakes. Convercion currents in the liquid outer core are responsible for the magneciv field of the Earth.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Rocks

RocksThe module gives an introduction to the three major groups of rocks that occur in the Earth's crust: magmatic rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rock. The module also gives a short introduction to plate tectonics. Plate tectonics concerns the motion of the rigid plates that make up the outer part of the Earth. Most rock forming processes occur along the boundaries between these plates. The last part of the module addresses the rock cycle, which describes how the rocks in the crust are formed and destroyed.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Volcanoes and Volcanism

Volcanoes and VolcanismThe module gives a basic description of volcanoes and volcanic activity. The first part describes how the viscosities of different melts vary. The viscosity of the melt that is discharged from a volcano decides the course of the eruption and how the volcano builds up. Further, the module gives an overview of the various products of volcanic activity, different geological settings of volcanoes. Not surprisingly, most volcanic activity occurs along the boundaries between lithosphere plates. The last part of the module addresses volcanic hazards.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Plate Tectonics

Plate TectonicsThe module gives an introduction to plate tectonics. Plate tectonics give a description on how the lithosphere plates of the Earth are continously moving, giving rise to earthquakes and volcanism around the world. The first part addresses Alfred Wegener's continental drift hypothesis - the precursor of the plate tectonic theory. Then we will follow the development on the field until Wegener's ideas were acknowledged 50 years later, and the plate tectonics theory was generally accepted. The second part addresses some of the geological processes that are related to plate tectonics. The last part shows a plate tectonic reconstruction - here you can follow the motion of the lithosphere plaste thorough the last 440 million years.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Magmatism and Magmatic Rocks

Magmatism and Magmatic RocksThe module gives an introduction to magmatic petrology - the study of magmatic rocks. The first part describes how the appearace of a magmatic rocks. The first part describes how the appearance of a magmatic rock depends on whether it crystallized at the depth or at the Earth's surface. Then the processes during crystallization of magma are discussed. A large amount of different types of magmatic rocks occur in the crust. Two of the most important criteria that are used for classification are addressed: grain size and chemical composition. Further, the module describes how and where magma are formed. The last part of the module gives a description on how the chemical composition of magma may change during its evolution.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Earthquakes

EarthquakesThe module describes the mechanisms responsible for earthquakes, and how the energy that is released during an earthquake is transmitted though the crust. Furter, the module explains how an earthquake is recorded. On basis of the data recorded of an earthquake, both the location of the focus of the earthquake and its magnitude can be calculated. Most earthquakes occur along plate boundaries. The module describes the variations in earthquake activity of the different types of plate boundaries. The last part of the module addresses earthquake destructions and earthquake prediction.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphic RocksThe module gives an introduction in metamorphic petrology. The various causes of metamorphism are described, such as changes in the pressure and temperature that a rock is exposed to. Further, the module gives a description of the various types of metamorphic processes, such as regional metamorphism, contact metamorphism, cataclastiv metamorphism and hydrothermal metamorphism. Subjects as index minerals, geothermal gradients and metamorphic facies are discussed.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Mountains

MountainsThe module gives a description of various types of mountain belts. Further, the relationshiop between mountain building processes and plate tectonics are discussed. The module also goes through the different mechanisms that are responsible for the break-down of mountain belts. The second half of the module demonstrate how plate tectonics and moundtain building processes during the last 4 billion years have been responsible for the formation of the present continental crust.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Diagenesis and Petrographical Description of Terrigenous Clastic Rocks

Diagenesis and Petrographical Description of Terrigenous Clastic RocksDiagenesis describes the chemical and physical changes undergone by a sediment after deposition and during burial until the realm og metamorphism is reached. The module ends with a brief presentation of the petrography of siliciclastic deposits.

Instructor: Michael R. Talbot

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Weathering, Denudation & the Genesis of Sedimentary Particles

Weathering, Denudation & the Genesis of Sedimentary ParticlesAn introduction to rock weathering and denudation, with particular reference to their role in the formation of sediment particles. The module examines physical and chemical weathering processes and also the relationship between weathering, the composition of river waters and atmospheric CO2.

Instructor: Michael R. Talbot

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Mantle Plumes: Part 1

Mantle Plumes: Part 1In this e-module some of the basic concepts concerning Large Igneous Provinces, Hotspots and Mantle Plumes are outlined. The Icelandic Hotspot is used as an example.

Instructor: Rolf Mjelde

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Mantle Plumes: Part 2

Mantle Plumes: Part 2The purpose with this e-module is to outline some of the basic characteristics of the Hawaiian magmatic system, and to compare its magmatic flux through time with that of the Icelandic Plume.

Instructor: Rolf Mjelde

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Carbonate Geology

Carbonate Geology

Introduction to Carbonates

Introduction to CarbonatesA basic introduction to carbonates is given, focusing on textures, diagenesis, depositional environment, dolomitization, porosity and karst.

Instructors: Jesper Kresten Nielsen, Bjarne Rafaelsen

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Structural Geology

Structural Geology

Basin Inversion

Basin InversionIn this module the typical features for basins which have undergone variable amounts of subsidence and uplift are discussed.

Instructor: Arild Andresen

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Extensional Faults

Extensional FaultsThe intention of this module is to make students capable of describing and interpreting normal faults.

Instructor: Arild Andresen

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Fault Plane Solutions

Fault Plane SolutionsThe goal of the module is to make students understand and use fault plane solutions in structural analysis.

Instructor: Arild Andresen

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Stereographic Projection and Its Use in Structural Geology

Stereographic Projection and Its Use in Structural GeologyStereographic projection was first developed by astronomers, in mapping the stars. The methos was later adopted by geologists, first by crystallographers and then by structural geologists when presenting the orientation of linear and planar structures.

Instructor: Arild Andresen

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Deformation of Rocks - Structural Geology

Deformation of Rocks - Structural GeologyThe module gives an introduction to structural geology. The first part gives a description of brittle and ductile deformation structures. Further, the formation of faults, folds and foliation is discussed. The module gives an example on how the deformation structures of rocks can be used to deduce the deformation history of the crust. The last part of the module gives a description of how to measure the orientation of deformation structures at an outcrop.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Svalbard Margin

Svalbard MarginThis module presents the crustal structure and discusses geological processes on crustal scale in the following areas: Barents Sea, west-Spitsbergen margin and oceanic crust west of Spitsbergen. The results are mainly derived from Ocean Bottom Seismic (OBS) data.

Instructor: Rolf Mjelde

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Testimonials

'Great introduction to volcanoes. A must for introduction courses in geology..’

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Atlantic Transect

Atlantic TransectIn order to understand the processes leading to collapse of mountain belts, formation of extensional basins and construction of new oceanic crust, passive margins must be studied in a conjugate context. This module discusses the only existing, complete crustal transect across the Atlantic. The profile extends from the Møre coast off Norway into Scoresby Sund on East Greenland.

Instructor: Rolf Mjelde

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Testimonials

'A great module with excellent animations. A must for those who needs an introduction to geology.’

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Moho? So What?!

Moho? So What?!This module shows some examples of the Moho configuration in the North Atlantic.

Instructor: Rolf Mjelde

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Voring Margin: Lineaments

Voring Margin: LineamentsThis module describes the segmentation of the outer mid-Norwegian margin, and the link between oceanic fracture zones, crustal scale lineaments and post-Caledonian detachments.

Instructor: Rolf Mjelde

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Voring Margin: Underplating

Voring Margin:UnderplatingThe module discusses the high-velocity layer observed in the lower crust in the Vøring Basin. Understanding its composition and determining the timing of its formation is crucial in order to understand the subsidence and thermal history of the basin.

Instructor: Rolf Mjelde

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Testimonials

'A superb module!’

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Voring Margin: Tertiary Domes

Voring Margin: Tertiary DomesTertiary domes that may be linked to compressional forces have been identified on the Voring margin. The module review possible mechanisms for the formation of the domes and a new model is proposed based on interpretation of OBS data.

Instructor: Rolf Mjelde

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Voring Margin: Continent-Ocean Transition

Voring Margin: Continent-Ocean TransitionThe passive volcanic Vøring Margin is an ideal area to study rifting processes leading to continental break-up, as the margin is well map by geophysical data. This module discusses the results from an OBS-survey, specifically designed to map the COT.

Instructor: Rolf Mjelde

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Voring Margin: Structural Revolution

Voring Margin: Structural Revolution

Instructor: Rolf Mjelde

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Stratigraphy and Sedimentology

Stratigraphy and Sedimentology

Sediment Compaction and Diagenesis - An Introduction

Sediment Compaction and Diagenesis - An IntroductionSediment compaction is important for the prediction of porosity, permeability and seismic attributes. Porosity determines, to a large extent, the density and permeability of sediments and is therefore a vital input for basin modelling.

Instructor: Knut Bjørlykke

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Sediment Compaction and Diagenesis - Sand

Sediment Compaction and Diagenesis - SandThe porosity of reservoir rocks at a certain depth may vary greatly depending on the sediment composition and the burial history. In most cases the porosity will gradually decrease as a result of increased stress or temperature. During production the effective overburden stress in the reservoir rock may be increased as the fluid pressure is reduced. This may cause mechanical compaction during production, particularly in poorly cemented reservoir.

Instructors: Per Arne Bjorkum, Knut Bjørlykke

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Sediment Compaction and Diagenesis - Mudstones and Shales

Sediment Compaction and Diagenesis - Mudstones and ShalesMudstones have a high content of clay minerals but contain normally also sand sized quartz and feldspar. The rock mechanical properties and the velocity in mudstones depend on the primary mineralogy and grain size and on the burial history.

Instructors: Per Arne Bjorkum, Knut Bjørlykke

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Sediment Compaction and Diagenesis - Fluid Flow

Sediment Compaction and Diagenesis - Fluid FlowDevelopment of overpressure depends mostly on the lateral drainage. Most shales have sufficient low permeability to develop overpressure if the flow is vertical. In terms of heat transport the water flow is also insignificant. The compaction process (porosity loss) will cause an upwards expulsion of pore water, but the pore water flow will be downwards relative to the surface (sea floor) expect where the flow is focussed by a factor of about 10-20.

Instructors: Per Arne Bjorkum, Knut Bjørlykke

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Impacts

ImpactsThe module gives an introduction to impacts and crater studies. Examples from the Mjølnir crater in the Barents Sea are given. The module also provides links to several associated webpages that could be of interest to students.

Instructor: Henning Dypvig

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Clays, Muds and Mudstones

Clays, Muds and MudstonesAn introduction to clays, muds and mudstones. Examines the formation of mud-sized particles, and provides an overview of the main factors that control the composition and appearance of mudstones. Briefly reviews the physical changes and clay-mineral transformations due to diagenesis.

Instructor: Michael R. Talbot

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Biofacies and Stratigraphy of Sedimentary Sequences

Biofacies and Stratigraphy of Sedimentary SequencesBiofacies parameters of foraminiferan combined with sedimentary and stratigraphy data are used to define components of sequence stratigraphic architecture. Basic biofacies features reflect transgressive-regressive developments.

Instructors: Tore Joranger, Jenø Nagy

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Concepts in Sequence Stratigraphy

Concepts in Sequence StratigraphyThe hierarchic elements of facies, facies associations, systems tracts and sequences are described and discussed in order for students to get familiar with these concepts.

Instructor: William Helland-Hansen

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Basic Introduction to Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

Basic Introduction to Sedimentology and StratigraphyThis module presents a short version of the historical background of the disciples and gives an introduction to the basic principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy.

Instructor: Tine Lærdal

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From Modern Faunas to Facies Interpretation

From Modern Faunas to Facies InterpretationFaunal parameters exemplified by benthis foraminifera are applied to characterize and interpret shelf to marginal marine environments. An outline of these parameters is given, and their distribution in modern environments is demonstrated.

Instructors: Tore Joranger, Jenø Nagy

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Geological Modeling

Geological Modeling

Sedimentology and Reservoir Geology of Shallow Marine Systems

Sedimentology and Reservoir Geology of Shallow Marine SystemsIntroduction to shallow marine depositional environments and their application in the construction of reservoir models.

Instructors: Chris Edwards, John Howell

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Formation of Rift Basins

Formation of Rift BasinsThe module illustrates how temperature and denisty varies with depth and relative to crustal layering, and introduces the student to the concepts, ideas and laws of isostacy. Finally the student is introduced to the different extensional models.

Instructor: Arild Andresen

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Geochemistry

Geochemistry

Introduction to Sulfur Isotopes

Introduction to Sulfur IsotopesAn introduction to stable isotope geochemistry is given, focusing on the sulfur isotopes 32S and 34S. A theoretical background including a wide range of sample preparation and analytical methods is presented.

Instructors: Adrian J. Boyce, Nils-Martin Hanken, Jan Kresten Nielsen, Jesper Kresten Nielsen, Yanan Shen

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The K-Ar And Ar-Ar Methods of Dating

The K-Ar And Ar-Ar Methods of DatingThe module gives the basic theory of the classical K-Ar method of dating and the more recently developed Ar-Ar method. The differences between the two methods are discussed. Argon is a noble gas that escapes from the mineral as soon as it formes during decay 40K at high temperature. The significance of this for the interpretation of K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages is discussed. Further, the different analythical techniques of the Ar-Ar method are described.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Atoms, Isotopes and Radioactivity

Atoms, Isotopes and RadioactivitySeveral geochronological methods are based on the radioactive decay of unstable nuclides and growth of their stable daughter nuclides. This module gives a description of the different mechanisms of radioaсtive decay. However, before the methods are discussed, a short introduction to the periodic system and the nuclide chart is given.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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The Rb-Sr Method of Dating

The Rb-Sr Method of DatingThe module gives the basic theory of the Rb-Sr method of dating. Further, it is demonstrated how the method can be used to determine the age of igneous and metamorphic processes. The last part of the module describes how the Sr isotope composistion of marine carbonates can be used to date the deposition of the sediment.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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The Sm-Nd Method of Dating

The Sm-Nd Method of DatingThe module gives the basic theory of the Sm-Nd method of dating, and some of the background of the U-series methods of dating. Further, it is demonstrated how the method can be used to determine the age of crystallization and metamorphic rocks. The last part of the module describes how the Sm-Nd isotopic composition of sediments and sedimentary rocks can be used to determine the source of the sediment.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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The U-Pb Method of Dating

The U-Pb Method of DatingThe module gives the basic theory of the U-Pb method of dating, and some of the background of the U-series methods of dating. Further, it is demonstrated how the method can be used to determine the age of igneous and metamorphic processes. The last part of the module describes how U-Pb ages of detrital zircons can be used for provenance studies.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Absolute Age Determination

Absolute Age DeterminationThe module gives a description of how the decay of radioactive isotopes can be used to determine the ag of geological processes. The module also gives a discussion on how different types of gological processes can be dated by different methods.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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Minerals

MineralsThe module gives an introduction to mineralogy. THe first part gives a short description of atoms and the periodic system. Then follows a description of the structure, chemical composition and physical properties of the most important minerals/mineral groups. Topics as polymorphism and cation substitution are covered. The last part of the module describes how minerals can be studied under a microscope.

Instructor: Kåre Kullerud

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